The structure of Promises
S utters T in the presence of H and non-defectively promises that p to H iff:-
1. S and H share same language and normal I/O conditions obtain.
2. S expresses the proposition p in T (explicit promises).
3. In expressing that p, S predicates a future act A of S (no promises about the past).
4. H would prefer Sís doing A to his not doing A and S believes that H prefers so. (distinguishing from threats and invitations).
5. It is not obvious to both S and H that S will do A in normal course of events. (non-defective agreements).
6. S intends to do A. (good faith, sincere promises).
7. S intends that uttering T places him under obligation to do A. (necessary condition for promising).
8. S intends to produce in H the knowledge K that uttering T is to count as placing S under obligation to do A.